An interesting new theory has emerged from analyzing a super computer.
The photo was taken by Zhangshuang. There is a closer look at the Bradykinin hypothesis.
Researchers analyzed the results after Summit was over. It was an “eureka moment” according to Dr. Daniel Jacobson, lead researcher and chief scientist for Computational Systems Biology at Oak Ridge. The bradykinin hypothesis is a new theory about how Covid-19 impacts the body. Some of the most bizarre symptoms of Covid-19 are explained by a model provided by the hypothesis. Many of the treatments it suggests are already FDA approved. The results were published in a paper in the journal eLife. More than 40,000 genes from 17,000 genetic samples were crunched by the Summit computer at Oak Ridge National Lab in Tennessee. The process of analyzing 2.5 billion genetic combinations took more than a week, but Summit is the second-fastest computer in the world.
You can get the latest news, expert advice, and analysis in Your Coronaviruses Update. According to the team, a Covid-19 infection usually begins when the virus enters the body through the nose, where it is known to target the ACE2 receptors. The virus enters cells in other places where ACE2 is present, such as the heart, kidneys, and intestines. Some of the disease’s cardiac and GI symptoms can be attributed to this.
Covid-19 is like a criminal who slips into your unlocked second floor window and runssacks your house. They throw open all your doors and windows so their associates can rush in and help take your stuff. Things start to get really interesting once Covid-19 is established in the body. The data Summit analyzed shows that Covid-19 isn’t interested in justinfecting cells that already express a lot of ACE2 Instead, it hijacks the body’s own systems, tricking it into upregulating ACE2 receptors in places where they’re usually expressed at low or within this website levels, including the lungs.
The bradykinin storm is caused by a massive build up of bradykinin in the body. The bradykinin hypothesis states that the storm is responsible for many of the deadly effects of Covid-19. The pathology of Covid-19 is likely the result of Bradykinin Storms rather than cytokine storms, according to the paper. bradykinin storms are a possible cause of Covid-19’s pathologies.
The body has a chemical called bradykinin, which helps to regulate blood pressure. The team believes that the body’s mechanisms for regulating bradykinin go awry when the virus tweaks the RAS. The body stops breaking down bradykinin when it is resensitized. When the virus downregulates bradykinin,ACE can’t degrade it as effectively as before.
bradykinin builds up in the body. It makes your blood vessels weak. Recent clinical data shows that Covid-19 is more of a cardiovascular disease than a respiratory one. The lungs are still affected by Covid-19. The researchers say that the lungs can fill with fluid when blood vessels leak. Immune cells leak out into the lungs, causing inflammation. Covid-19 is like a criminal who enters your house through your unlocked second-floor window and runssacks it.
This may explain why the effectiveness of ventilators in treating advanced Covid-19 has been less than doctors had expected. The alveoli in the lungs are filled with this hydrogel, so regardless of how much oxygen you pump in, it doesn’t matter. The lungs are like water balloons. Patients can suffocate even if they are receiving breathing support.
Covid-19 has a trick. The data shows that it increases production of HLA in the lungs through another pathway. It is possible to absorb more than 1,000 times its weight in fluid with the use of HLA. It forms a hydrogel, which can fill the lungs in some patients, when it combines with fluid leaking into the lungs. It is like trying to breathe through a piece of candy.
The bradykinin hypothesis accounts for the neurological effects of Covid-19, which are some of the most concerning elements of the disease. As many as half of hospitalized Covid-19 patients have these symptoms. Many Covid-19 patients have evidence of leaking blood vessels in their brains, according to the team.
Many of the effects of Covid-19 on the heart are related to the bradykinin hypothesis. One in five hospitalized Covid-19 patients have damage to their hearts, even if they never had cardiac issues before. Some of this may be due to the virus infecting the heart through its ACE2 receptors. Cardiac contraction and blood pressure are controlled by the RAS. bradykinin storms can cause arrhythmias and low blood pressure in Covid-19 patients.
If bradykinin storms cause the blood-brain barrier to break down, this could allow harmful cells and compounds into the brain, leading to inflammation, potential brain damage, and many of the neurological symptoms Covid-19 patients experience. I was told that the excess of bradykinin could be to blame for many of the neurological symptoms in Covid-19. bradykinin is said to increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Similar neurological symptoms have been observed in other diseases that result from excess bradykinin.
A breakdown of the blood-brain barrier can be caused by Bradykinin. Under normal circumstances, this barrier is used to keep your brain and the rest of your circulatory system separate. It allows the brain to function, while keeping out toxins and pathogens, and keeping the brain’s internal environment tightly regulated.
Hypertensive patients who take blood pressure–lowering drugs may get the same effects from Covid-19. There are two textbook symptoms of Covid-19, a dry cough and fatigue. In Covid-19 patients, they have been observed to increase blood potassium levels. The bradykinin hypothesis was strengthened by the similarities between the side effects of the two drugs. Increased bradykinin levels could be related to other Covid-19 symptoms A class of drugs used to treat high blood pressure has the same effect on the RAS system as Covid-19. In their paper, the team notes that the virus acts as an ACE inhibitor, almost directly replicating the actions of these drugs.
The bradykinin hypothesis explains several other strange symptoms of Covid-19. Some Covid-19 patients experience swollen, bruised toes that are related to a condition called Covid toes. Some patients have recently experienced symptoms of the thyroid, which could be caused by Bradykinin. A loss of taste and smell can be caused by the drugs. The symptom is more likely due to the virus affecting the cells surrounding olfactory nerve cells than the effects of bradykinin.
The bradykinin hypothesis adds novelty to the existing literature and contributes to a better understanding of Covid-19, according to scientists Frank van de Veerdonk, and Roger Little, who peer-reviewed the team. It predicts almost all the disease’s symptoms, even those that appear random, and suggests new treatments for the disease. The bradykinin hypothesis could explain some of the broader demographic patterns of the disease. The researchers note that some parts of the RAS system are sex linked, and that one of the receptors is located on the X chromosomes. The data shows that women have twice the levels of thisprotein than men. The paper concludes that this could explain the lower incidence of Covid-19 mortality in women. Women may be given extra protection against the disease because of a genetic quirk.
The team suggests that vitamins D and Covid-19 could be useful. Reducing the levels of REN could be done by using the vitamins involved in the RAS system. This could stop bradykinin storms from forming again. Those with Covid-19 have already been shown to benefit from the use of vitamins D and E. Around 20% of the population is deficient in vitamins, which is easy to find over the counter. It could be an easy, relatively safe way to reduce the severity of the bradykinin storms if the vitamins proves effective. Several drugs are already approved by the FDA to treat other conditions and target aspects of the RAS. They could be applied to treat Covid-19 as well. danazol, stanozolol, and ecallantide are some of the drugs that reduce bradykinin production. bradykinin signaling is reduced by others, like icatibant, which could blunt its effects once it is in the body.
The scale of its global impact and the randomness of its symptoms make Covid-19 stand out. Doctors have been trying to understand the disease and come up with a unified theory. The bradykinin hypothesis is yet to be proven. In this case, actual drugs that could provide relief to real patients are provided by the hypothesis.
There are other compounds that could be used to treat bradykinin storms. It is possible to stop deadly hydrogels from forming in the lungs with the help of hymecromone. The researchers believe that the mechanism that protects women from Covid-19 infections could be mimicked. All of these potential treatments are speculative, and need to be studied in a controlled environment before they can be used more broadly.
The testing of any of these pharmaceutical interventions should be done in well-designed clinical trials, according to the researchers. The next step in the process is to get this message out. The finding won’t cure Covid-19. The bradykinin hypothesis could lead to interventions that reduce patients’ suffering and potentially save lives.
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